воскресенье, 25 марта 2012 г.

The ecliptic. Ecliptic coordinate system

Measurements of the zenith distance or altitude of the sun at noon (ie, at the time of upper culmination) at the same latitude was found that the declination of the sun throughout the year varies between 23 e 27 'up-23e27' twice a year passing through zero. From observations of the night sky kind of change that, and right ascension of the sun throughout the year and gradually changes from 0 € to 360e, or from 0h to 24h. Indeed, at midnight, at the top are the culmination of the stars, right ascensions of which differ from the right ascension of the sun on the 180e or 12h. The observations also show that every day at midnight stars culminate with more and more direct ascent, consequently, the right ascension of the sun each day increases. Considering the continuous change of both the origin of the sun, it is easy to install, it moves among the stars from west to east along the great circle of the celestial sphere, called the ecliptic. The plane of the ecliptic E'' ^ E d (11) is inclined to the plane of the celestial equator at an angle e = 23rd 27 '. The diameter of PP ', perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, the ecliptic is called the axis and intersects with the surface of the celestial sphere in the ecliptic north pole P (which lies in the northern hemisphere) and south pole of the ecliptic P' (in the Southern Hemisphere). The ecliptic intersects the celestial equator at two points: at the vernal equinox ^ and at the autumnal equinox d. At the point of the vernal equinox ^ Sun crosses the celestial equator, moving from the southern hemisphere to the northern celestial sphere. At point d the autumnal equinox the Sun moves from the northern to the southern hemisphere. Point of the ecliptic, are separated from the equinoctial to the 90s, called the point of the summer solstice (northern hemisphere) and the point of the winter solstice (Southern Hemisphere). Large semi-circle of the celestial sphere PMP ', passing through the ecliptic poles and through the M star, is called the circle of latitude star. The ecliptic and the vernal equinox are the basis of the ecliptic celestial coordinate system. One coordinate in this system is the ecliptic latitude b luminaries M, which is called the arc of a circle of latitude mM (see 11) of the ecliptic to the celestial body, or the central angle between the plane of the ecliptic TOM and the direction of light M. Ecliptic latitude are measured in the range from 0 € to + 90 ° to the ecliptic north pole (P) and from 0 € to - 90 ° to its south pole (S '). Luminaries that are on the same small circle whose plane is parallel to the ecliptic plane, have the same ecliptic latitude. Ecliptic latitude determines the position of lights in the circle of latitude. The position of the same circle of latitude on the celestial sphere is determined by the coordinate of the other - the ecliptic longitude l. Ecliptic longitude l is the arc lights in M ​​^ m the ecliptic from the vernal equinox ^ to the circle of latitude that passes through the star, or a central angle ^ from (in the ecliptic plane) between the direction of the vernal equinox and the plane of the circle of latitude that passes through the light. Ecliptic longitude are measured in the direction of the apparent annual motion of the sun on the ecliptic, ie, from west to east in the range from 0 € to 360e. Luminaries that are on the same circle of latitude, have the same ecliptic longitude. Ecliptic coordinate system is used mainly in theoretical astronomy in determining the orbits of celestial bodies.

Changing the origin of light in the diurnal motion

When the light comes and goes, its z = 90 °, h = 0e, and the azimuths of the points of sunrise and sunset depend on the declination and the latitude of the place lights up. At the time of upper culmination zenith distance of the light of the minimum, maximum altitude and the azimuth A = 0 (if the star culminates south of the zenith), or A = 180e (unless it culminates from the zenith to the north). At the time of the lower culmination of the zenith distance of lights reaches its maximum value, the height - the minimum, and the azimuth A = 180e, or A = 0e (if the lower culmination of the nadir occurs between Z 'and the south pole of the world P'). Hence, from the lower to the upper culmination zenith distance of the light decreases, and the height increases, from the upper to the lower peak, by contrast, the zenith distance increases, the height decreases. At the same azimuth lights will also vary within certain limits. Thus, the horizontal coordinates of luminaries (z, h and A) are continually changing as a result of the rotation of the celestial sphere, and if the light has always connected with the sphere (ie, its declination d and a right ascension remain constant), then its horizontal coordinates take their previous values ​​when the sphere will make one revolution. Since the daily parallel bodies at all latitudes of the Earth (except the poles) are inclined to the horizon, the horizontal coordinates vary unevenly, even for a uniform daily rotation of the celestial sphere. Altitude h, and its zenith distance z more slowly varying near the meridian, ie, at the upper or lower culmination. Azimuth is shining A, on the contrary, in these moments varies most rapidly. Local luminaries angle t (in the first equatorial coordinate system), like the azimuth A, is constantly changing. At the time of upper culmination of his lights t = 0. At the time of the lower peak hour angle of the lights t = 180e, or 12h. But, in contrast to the azimuth, hour angle luminaries (if the declination d and a direct ascent remain constant) change uniformly because they counted on the celestial equator, and the uniform rotation of the celestial sphere angles are proportional to changes in hourly time intervals, ie increment of time equal to the angle of rotation angle of the celestial sphere. The uniformity of the angles change time is very important in the measurement of time. Altitude h, or the zenith distance z at the climax depends on the declination shone d and latitude of the observer j. Drawing directly from (7): 1) If the declination shone M1 d <j, then it culminates to the south of the zenith at the zenith distance z = j - d, (1.6) or the height h = 90 ° - j + d; (1.7 ) 2) if d = j, then the star culminates at the zenith, and then z = 0 (1.8) and h = + 90 °, (1.9) 3) if d> j, then the star of M2 in the upper peak is located to the north of the zenith to the zenith distance z = d - j, (1.10) or the height h = 90 ° + j - d. (1.11) 4) Finally, at the time of the lower culmination of the zenith distance z = M3 lights 180e - j - d, (1.12) a height h = d - (90 ° - j) = j + d - 90 °. (1.13) is known from observations (see § 8) that at a given latitude j each star always rises (or sets) at the same point of the horizon, the height it is also always the same meridian. We can therefore conclude that the declination of stars do not vary over time (at least visibly). The point of sunrise and sunset, moon and planets, as well as their height in the meridian at different days of the year - are different. Consequently, the declination of these stars are continuously changing over time.

Celestial sphere

In the study of apparent motion of celestial bodies to a varying degree of accuracy to determine their position in the points of observation. It is not necessary to know the distance to them, because all the bodies seem to us, as it were located on the inner surface of a sphere of arbitrary radius. Therefore, the visible, the provisions of stars can only be defined directions, and their relative position - angles between these directions, or the corresponding arcs of great circles on a sphere, which emanate from the center of all the directions. An imaginary sphere of arbitrary radius centered at an arbitrary point in space, which is located on the surface of the light so they are visible in the sky at some time point in space from the villa, called the celestial sphere. Thus, the imaginary observer at the center of the celestial sphere, the situation should be seen shining on its surface in exactly the same relative positions in which the observer sees a real real lights in the sky. The rotation of the celestial sphere follows the rotation of the sky. Celestial sphere is used to study the apparent positions and motions of celestial bodies. To do this, on the surface of the main line and fixed point with respect to which, and made the necessary measurements. Direct ZOZ '(4) passing through the center of the celestial sphere and coincides with the direction of a plumb-line filaments in place of observation is called a vertical or horizontal line. Plumb line intersects with the surface of the celestial sphere in two points: at the height Z, above the head of the observer, and in a diametrically opposite point - the nadir of Z '. The big circle of the celestial sphere (SWNE), whose plane is perpendicular to the plumb line, is called a mathematical or real horizon. Mathematical horizon divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two halves: the visible to the observer, with the apex at the zenith Z, and invisible, with the apex at the nadir of Z '. Mathematics should be distinguished from the horizon of the visible horizon (the line along which the "sky is convergent with the Earth"). The apparent horizon on the land - the wrong line, a point which lies above, below the true horizon. In the open sea the visible horizon is always a small circle whose plane is parallel to the plane of the mathematical horizon. Small circle of the celestial sphere (AMA), light passing through M and the plane which is parallel to the plane of the mathematical horizon is almucantars star. Large semi-circle of the celestial sphere ZMZ ', passing through the zenith and nadir M star, called a range of heights, vertical circle, or just verticals star. Diameter PP '(5) around which the rotation of the celestial sphere, called the axis of the world. The axis of the world intersects with the surface of the celestial sphere in two points: at the north pole of the world P and the south pole of the world P '. North Pole one of the rotation of the celestial sphere which is clockwise when viewed from outside the area. The big circle of the celestial sphere QWQ'E, whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of the world, called the celestial equator. The celestial equator divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two hemispheres: the north, with the north pole of the world P and south, with the south pole of the world P '. Small circle of the celestial sphere (bMb), a plane which is parallel to the plane of the celestial equator is called the celestial or heavenly body parallel diurnal M. Apparent diurnal motion of stars are made on a daily parallels. Large semi-circle of the celestial sphere PMP ', passing through the poles of the world and shone through M, is called the hour circle and the declination circle of lights. The celestial equator intersects with the mathematical horizon in two points: at the point E, and east to the west of the point W. Circles of altitude, passing through the point of east and west, called the first verticals - east and west. The big circle of the celestial sphere PZQSP'Z'Q'N, the plane which passes through the sheer line and the axis of the world, is called the celestial meridian. Celestial meridian divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two hemispheres: the eastern, east to a point E, and west, with a point west of W. The plane of the celestial meridian and the plane of the mathematical horizon intersect in a straight line of NOS, which is called the noon line. Celestial meridian intersects with the mathematical horizon in two points: at the north N and south of the point S. The point of the north is the one that is closer to the north pole of the world. The point of the south - closer to the south pole of the world. Celestial meridian intersects the celestial equator in two points: at the top of the equator Q, which is closer to the zenith, and the lowest point of the equator, Q ', which is closer to the nadir. Doug celestial meridian PZQSP 'is its upper part, and the arc PNQ'Z'P' - the lower

воскресенье, 18 марта 2012 г.

The apparent position of stars. Constellations

At what point would the Earth's surface, we are, we always think that all the heavenly bodies are to us at the same distance on the inner surface of a sphere, which is commonly called the firmament, or just air. Day of the sky, if it is not covered with clouds, a blue color, and we see it is the brightest heavenly body - the Sun. Sometimes, in conjunction with the sun, the moon is visible during the day and very rarely, some other celestial body, such as the planet Venus. In the clear night in the dark sky, we see the stars, moon, planets, nebulae, comets, and some other body. The first impression from watching the sky - a disorder of countless stars and their location in the sky. In fact, the stars visible to the naked eye, not so much as it seems, only about 6000 the whole sky, and on one side of it, which is visible at the moment from any point of the earth's surface, no more than three thousand. The relative position of stars in the sky is changing very slowly. Without accurate measurements no significant changes in the distribution of stars in the sky can not be detected in the course of many hundreds, and for the vast number of stars - and many thousands of years. The latter circumstance makes it easy to navigate among the thousands of stars, despite the apparent randomness in their arrangement. For the purpose of orientation on the sky the bright stars have long been combined into groups called constellations. Constellations designated names of animals (the Great Bear, Lion, Dragon, etc.), the names of the heroes of Greek mythology (Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Perseus, etc.) or simply the names of those objects that resembled the shape formed by the bright stars of the group (North Crown, Triangle, Boom, Libra, etc.). In the XVII century. individual stars in each constellation are denoted by Greek letters. Somewhat later introduced a numerical numbering, currently used mostly for faint stars. In addition, the brightest stars (about 130) have their own names. For example: a Canis Major is Sirius, a Aurigae - the Chapel, a Lyrae - Vega, a Orionis - Betelgeuse, b Orion - Rigel, b Persei - Algol, etc. These names and designations of stars used in the present. However, the boundaries of the constellations outlined by ancient astronomers, and representing the sinuous lines, in 1922, have changed some of the great constellations were divided into several independent constellations, and under the constellations came to be understood not of the bright stars, and parts of the sky. Now the sky is conventionally divided into 88 separate sections - the constellations. The brightest stars in the constellations are good guidelines for finding the sky more faint stars and other celestial objects. Therefore, you must learn to quickly locate a particular constellation in the sky itself. To do this, you must first learn map the sky and remember the specific contours formed in the constellations of the brightest stars.

суббота, 17 марта 2012 г.

The origin and main stages of development of astronomy

Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. The first records of astronomical observations whose authenticity is beyond doubt, refer to the VIII century. BC But we know that even in 3000 BC. Oe. Egyptian priests noticed that the flooding of the Nile, to regulate economic life of the country, attacked soon after before sunrise in the east appeared the brightest of the stars, Sirius, hiding until then about two months in the rays of the sun. From these observations, the Egyptian priests fairly accurately determine the length of tropical year. In ancient China over 2000 years BC apparent motion of the sun and moon were so well understood that the Chinese astronomers could predict the onset of solar and lunar eclipses. Astronomy, like any other science, arose out of human needs. Nomadic tribes of primitive society had to be guided in his wanderings, and they learned how to do it on the sun, moon and stars. The primitive farmer was in the field work to take into account the different seasons of the year the offensive, and he noticed that the change of seasons linked to the midday sun in height, with the advent of certain pas the night sky of stars. Further development of human society created a need for measurement of time and chronology (the preparation of calendars.) All this could give, and give observations on the movement of heavenly bodies, which were conducted at the beginning without any tools were not very accurate, but it met the practical needs of the time. From these observations, and there was a spider on the celestial bodies - Astronomy. With the development of human society to put forward all of the new astronomy and the new tasks for which needed better ways of observation and more precise methods of calculation. Gradually began to create a simple astronomical instruments, and developed mathematical methods for processing the observations. In ancient Greece, astronomy was already one of the most advanced sciences. To explain the apparent motions of planets, the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, the largest of them (II cent. BC), created a geometric theory of epicycles, which formed the basis of Ptolemy's geocentric system of the world (II cent. AD). Being a fundamentally incorrect, the system of Ptolemy nevertheless possible to predict the approximate position of the planets in the sky, and therefore satisfied to a certain extent, the practical needs for several centuries. Ptolemy's system of the world ends with stage of development of ancient Greek astronomy. The development of feudalism and the spread of Christianity led to a significant decline in the natural sciences, and the development of astronomy in Europe slowed down for many centuries. In an era of dark ages, astronomers engaged in only by observations of visible movements of the planets and the coordination of these observations with the accepted geocentric system of Ptolemy. Rational development of astronomy in this period was only from the Arabs and the peoples of Central Asia and the Caucasus, in the writings of prominent astronomers of the time - Al-Battani (850-929 gg.), Al-Biruni (973-1048 gg.), Ulugbek (1394-1449 gg .), etc. During the period of emergence and the emergence of capitalism in Europe, which replaced the feudal society, began the further development of astronomy. Especially it has developed rapidly in the era of great geographical discoveries (XV-XVI cc.). The rising new class of bourgeoisie was interested in the exploitation of new lands and fitted out many expeditions to open them. But the long journeys across the ocean called for more accurate and simpler method of calculation of orientation and time than those that could provide a system of Ptolemy. The development of trade and navigation is strongly required to improve the astronomical knowledge and, in particular, the theory of planetary motion. The development of productive forces and the demands of practice, on the one hand, and the accumulated observational data - on the other, paved the way for a revolution in astronomy, and produced by the great Polish scientist Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), who developed his heliocentric system, which was published a year his death. The doctrine of Copernicus was the beginning of a new stage in the development of astronomy. Kepler in the 1609-1618 years. were discovered laws of planetary motion, and in 1687 Newton published a law of universal gravitation. The new astronomy was able to study not only visible, but the actual movement of celestial bodies. Its numerous and brilliant achievements in this area culminated in the middle of the XIX century. the discovery of Neptune, and in our time - the calculation of the orbits of artificial celestial bodies. Next, a very important stage in the development of astronomy began relatively recently, from the middle of the XIX century., When there was a spectral analysis was applied, and photography in astronomy. These methods have enabled astronomers to begin to explore the physical nature of celestial bodies and to expand the boundaries of the investigated area. There astrophysics, in particular received a great development in the XX century. and continues to flourish today. In the 40's. XX century. began to develop radio astronomy, and in 1957 was the beginning of a qualitatively new methods of research, based on the use of artificial celestial bodies, which later led to the emergence of a new section is actually Astrophysics - X-ray astronomy (see § 160). The significance of these achievements in astronomy can not be overestimated. Launching satellites. (1957, USSR), space stations (1959, USSR), the first human flight into space (1961, USSR), the first landing of humans on the Moon (1969, USA) - a landmark event for all mankind . They were followed by delivery of the lunar soil to Earth, landing landers on the surface of Venus and Mars, sending automatic interplanetary stations to more distant planets of our solar system.

среда, 14 марта 2012 г.

The oldest astronomical monuments on the territory of Russia

The origins of the natural science world view of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples are rooted in the distant past of the Eastern Slavs. The rudiments of knowledge, embodied in the ancient times, formed the basis of ideas of our ancestors about the world. High culture of Ancient Russia would have been impossible if it was not based on that knowledge.Numerous archaeological investigations and exciting findings indicate the presence of astronomical knowledge is already among the tribes of Upper Paleolithic (35 8th millennium BC. E.), Inhabiting the territory of South-Eastern Europe.In 1871, a teacher from the town of Luben FL Kaminsky found on the right bank of the river. Uday, close to. Runners (now Lubeisky district, Poltava region). Parking nozdnepaleolitpcheskuyu 15th millennium BC. Oe. In her study in 1873, 1914-1915 and 1935. were found the remains of dwellings, as well as processed flint and bone artifacts. They include a mammoth tusk was found, covered with an amazing thread painted on a surface with exquisite accuracy. Archaeologists believe that this finding is a table of observations of the moon phases. The time axis is V-shaped line, the phases of the moon marked the strokes of different lengths. The moon, going to the damage indicated by a double prime. The first and last quarters, and Moon are marked with long lines. Attention is drawn to the location of the strokes: the first lunar month - one bar, facing outward, the second - two damaged the image of the third month, and a fourth - has a four stroke, facing outward. The observer, apparently, not only marked changes in the phases of the moon, but also kept track of time.When excavations parking Mezin on the river. Gingiva related to the late Paleolithic era, found the building in which the ritual and festivals were held. Among the items of the mammoth bones, covered with geometric patterns, naydsen inlaid bracelet, which consists of five separate plates. It is decorated with ornaments of repeating groups of parallel lines, aimed at an angle to the edge of the bracelet. Most groups consist of 14 well-inflicted cuts. Found several groups of 13 or 15 cuts. Areas of strokes in the two neighboring groups make an angle of 90 °. Each part of the bracelet, containing 27 - 29 cuts, is treated as a calendar of the lunar month. Perhaps the change in direction of strokes by 90 ° shows that in the first half of the lunar month of the disk increases, and the second - is reduced. "It is possible, as independent of each other at the same time showed the Soviet researcher Boris A. Frolov, and A. Marshak, an American scientist, which, judging by the ornamentation of the time, the Upper Paleolithic people had been the concept of a seven-day week, led by the lunar phases. In Paleolithic originated lunarnaya complicated mythology. "Another Mezin bracelet is covered with parallel bars, separated by bands of zigzags. The entire pattern consists of 564 lines - is the number of days in 19 lunar months. It should be noted that the number of lines in the central zone and the zigzags of a total of 366, which almost corresponds to one solar year. Treating Mezin bracelet as a lunar-solar calendar, the researchers believe it could be used for comparing solar and lunar time reckoning.

вторник, 13 марта 2012 г.

The cult of the sun in the mythology of the Slavs

In the burial hill tribes protoslavyan vessels are often found with the sign of the sun on the outer surface of the bottom. The largest number of finds dated to the graves, located between the rivers Vistula and the Dnieper. In the southern part of the territory of Slav settlement began to form. These tribes migrated and reached the Gulf of Finland in the north-west, the middle Volga in the east and the upper Volga River in the north-east.Designs on ceramic vessels found in graves suggest that the Proto imagine the world into the four. The three tiers, which are depicted on the ceramic vessels Tripoli culture, added the fourth - the underground, where the sun hides at night. It should ask why the ancients depicted the world in round vessels? Probably, we have a model of the universe of the ancient protoslavyan: a spherical world, consisting of the upper palate with the reserves of water, sky, through which moves the sun, the earth with plants and people, as well as the underworld, where the sun hides at night and where it goes in the morning. We can assume that it is - a prototype of the geocentric world system that emerged more than four thousand years ago and then lost for many centuries.At the turn of the Bronze and Iron Ages (XI - VII centuries. BC. E.) In the pre-Slav mythology formed the cult of the sun. All ornaments are found more often in its symbols: the cross and the wheel with four, six or eight spokes. It is interesting to note that the wheel with four spokes, or the cross was a symbol not only of the sun, and fire. Hence, identifying them, the ancient Slavs believed that the sun shines, because it burns. Wheel with six spokes was also associated with the sky, storm, thunder and lightning. The wheel with eight spokes-rays was the only sign Solptsa.In 1957, p. Lepesovka Belogorskiy district of Khmelnitsky region. archaeologist M. Tihanova during the excavation of the altar III - IV centuries. Mr. Oe. found well-preserved vessels for the New Year divination and spells. On the flat edge of a ritual bowl depicts a complex pattern consisting of 12 sections. In 1962, Rybakov decipher this pattern as a calendar. However, he argued as follows. The cross - a symbol of the sun or fire, and the ancient Slavic ritual fire lit three times a year in January (after the winter solstice), March (the vernal equinox) and June (summer solstice). Midsummer Festival (June 24) could symbolized by two elements of the pagan cult - fire and water (remember the rituals of this festival). On the ornament, the symbol of the Sun is shown three times - in the first, third and sixth sections. Consequently, the first section could be denoted in January, the third - March, and the sixth - in June. In the fourth section of the figure shows a tool for plowing the ground - plow. Time of tillage - April. In the eighth section of painted ears - cereals ripen in August and the beginning of their harvesting. Figure ninth section is similar to the network. Rybakov said its great similarity with the image of the network to old pictures of the autumn hunting of migratory birds. Consequently, we do a network, and it is marked in September.

Deciphering the ancient calendar glades

So awesome was deciphered ancient calendar glades. Now, Rybakov was able to draw an analogy between the ornaments on this vessel, and IV in the jar., Found back in 1899 archaeologist V. Hvoyko in with. Daisies near Kiev. Pitcher hit researchers unusual patterns, which no one could decipher. Sophisticated ornamental signs marked on the vessel wall in two rows. The top row shows two of the cross, a hexagon - a sign of thunder and lightning, the young tree, ears, sickles, in the second row - 96 squares and wavy lines. BA Rybakov, speculated that the squares represent days, and identified a hexagon with the holiday storm and thunder, which in the Julian calendar falls on July 20 (Elijah's Day). The holiday of Ivan Kupala Day is separated from Ilina at 27 days, and the jar between the hexagon and two crosses, as is often designated day, Midsummer, there are 27 squares. Between the images of the tree, symbolizing Yarily day, and hexagon (Elijah's Day) is 46 squares, which corresponds to 4 June. And we know from the chronicles that day Yarily fell on that date. Consequently, we have - the exact calendar from May 2 to August 7. Even signs of rain - wavy lines - depicted in the top row of the ornament at a time when moisture is most needed wheat: 20-30 May, 11-20 June, 4-6 July. More rains are no longer needed, and signs of rain are transferred from the upper to the lower number - into the ground before harvest.Astronomy as a science originated in ancient times. She accompanied mankind throughout the development of civilization from its very origins. The need for a fixed time interval forced primitive peoples to create a calendar system, constantly improve them, and each time to make more accurate calendars. Thus were laid the beginnings of astronomical knowledge of our ancestors.

пятница, 2 марта 2012 г.

Astronomy of the American Indians

Astronomy of the American Indians - value and history

In article the short review of astronomy of the American Indians is given. In each culture there are own representations about the night sky. Each tribe, group or the nation has own belief of that such and what value they have stars. American Indian tribes had own belief concerning value of stars, and these belief varied in each separate tribe.

Who observed of the sky?

The astronomy of the American Indians has been more often connected with elders of tribes, or with those people who have been connected with spiritual or religious to questions.

The majority of tribes, as well as in the West considered that movement of stars will be reflected in an order of things. Predictions of signs on the Earth, meant and predicted terrible droughts or success of crops. A little the American Indians of a tribe have opened and have accepted four basic directions, on the north, the south, the east and the West, as sacred. They have defined in these directions of a star, and on each direction have defined the gods.

Some astronomical events were very useful to all and everyone. Stars were used for navigation. The matter is that stars could see everyone and use for definition of a direction of movement during distant travel. For radical Americans, the astronomy is also the important factor in an everyday life.

Legends on stars

American Indian tribes thought out various that explanation why stars change position and are grouped in such order. These stories were various that testifies to a huge variety of belief which have been found out in these various tribes. For example, the tribe of western Mono in California considers that Galaxies were in group of six women which have been moved from the houses because of the unpleasant has begun to smell from a mouth from onions. To a tribe черноногих Montana and South Dakota, the Galaxy - six brothers of the orphans, which steels stars because of their neglect to a clan. Stories which are found in astronomy of radical Americans, used the best efforts to explain an origin of stars. All explanations were very various.

It is always interesting to note similarity between cultures. For example, in the West long thought of the Canis Major and the Small Dog as about stars of dogs. For Cheroki of the State of Tennessee, in the star sky there were two dogs-stars.

Importance of astronomy of the American Indians

The astronomy of the American Indians was very important for the several reasons. Stars have presented the navigation tool, for those who travels at night. For nomad tribes or tribes which often participated in long trips for which moving by the ground was very important. Besides, stars served as time quality monitoring. Unlike today when time can be defined to within a minute, the majority of tribes of the American Indians saw that time is divided only into the segments connected with their activity. For example, time was measured according to the beginning of inflow, change of colour of leaves and movement of stars in the sky. For many radical American people, year has paid off by quantity of the last full moons.

The Indian astronomy

Astronomy - one area, which интерсовала all mankind from the history beginnings. In India the first references to astronomy have been found in Drilling unit Veda which prescription is equated to 2000 in to н.э, Aryans Vedic actually idolised the Sun, Stars and Comets. The astronomy was then is closely interconnected with an astrology and as Hindus of ancient times used planets for a prediction of human destinies. Planets of Shani, that is. Saturn and the Brazier that is Mars considered ominous.

It would be surprising to know for us today that this science has promoted to such degree in ancient India that ancient Indian astronomers recognised that stars - the same creations as well as the sun that the sun - the Universe centre (solar system)

The Indian astronomy – the first changes in astronomy area.

The Indian astronomy has made huge impact on development of a science in the field of astronomy. The first mention of astronomy in India is dated date in four thousand years ago. Then activity of the Indian astronomers among which there were outstanding experts in these areas has been fixed. One of the first sources, research of stars in India the collection of hymns "Rigveda" created approximately in 2000 BC was mentioning

History of the Indian astronomy

The Indian astronomy and astrology has been closely connected among themselves. Ancient Indians considered that position of planets defines destiny of the person, especially planets Saturn and Mars. These representations have laid down in a basis of a modern astrology and horoscopes. However, they gave much more religious importance in the early texts devoted to astronomy, Scientist «Laghada's Vedanga Jyotisha» was rules of tracking movement of the Sun and the Moon for the coordination with the ritual purposes are declared. Early calculations of the Indian astronomy used stars. These calculations are based on stars and сидерическом the period. The period was defined as time, which is required to object to make one complete revolution round the Sun, in relation to stars.

Early Indian astronomers and their opening

Many have made opening which have left far forward in comparison with their western colleagues of the earliest Indian astronomers.


Арьябхатта was born in 476 year of our era, and it is widely recognised as the father of the Indian astronomy. When to it was about 25 years, it has presented astronomical and mathematical theories in which it was accepted that the Earth will rotate about the axis, and the periods of rotation of planets have been considered in relation to the Sun, instead of in stars. These calculations have put a basis of that we name now Solar system with the sun, being in its centre. In the ores of Arjabhatta has considerably outstripped the time. Also it has made numerous measurements which were surprisingly exact the then, including a circle and diameter of the Earth. It also has counted up that the radius of an orbit of a planet, depends on radius of the Earth and the Sun. The orbit was equal to duration of time spent for rotation round the Sun. Арьябхатта was the first astronomer who has opened that orbits of planets round the Sun in the form of ellipses. Its researches have led to opening of the reasons of occurrence of lunar and solar eclipses. Also it at necessary calculations could predict their occurrence. Арьябхатта was not only the first Indian the astronomer, but was also the master of mathematics and has thought up the term "zero", and has precisely calculated number пи (?) to 4 signs after a comma.

On April, 19th, 1975 India has directed the first companion into an orbit, with a name ' to Arjabhatta.


Брахмагупты was born during 598 our era and was head of the Indian astronomical observatory of Uddzhajn. It was the first who used algebra in the decision of astronomical problems. Брахмагупты has developed methods of calculation of movement and position of numerous planets. It also is calculated a circle of the Earth as an equivalent of 36000 kilometres that is extremely close to modern calculations of 40000 kilometres.


Бхаскара was born in 1114 AD, also became head of an observatory of Uddzhajn. It went in the footsteps of Brahmagupty with its same ingenious mathematical gift, and has developed set of planetary calculations, including time necessary for rotation of the Earth in an orbit round the Sun to within 9 signs after a comma.


Мадхава He was born in 1340 AD has based School Kerala astronomies and mathematics. It has led to occurrence of variety of excellent astronomers and helped with creation of the Indian astronomy as the world leader around 14 and 16 centuries.

Islamic Astronomy

Islamic Astronomy - history and value of the Arabian astronomy

In this article the short review of Islamic astronomy which also name Arabian is given. Before occurrence of astronomy as a science, Islamic Arabs relied on the empirical knowledge of stars. The great value is given to genesis and development of Islamic astronomy during the period with 8 for 14 centuries Development astronomy receives in such places, as the Near East, the North Africa, and then Mauritian Spain. In these areas and regions as it is known, the big break in astronomy has been made, and Europe has made the first steps to an enlightenment in dark centuries.

Early influences

Thanks to association of the several overseas people Sasanidov, эллинистической and the Indian nation, the Islamic astronomy, (known as Arabian) has received a fast push to development.

The Indian influence on the Arabian astronomy can be seen in transfer of works written on a Sanskrit. Also transfer of Zidzh of the al-shah of a collection of astronomical tables which have been made within two centuries in Persia - shows strong Persian influence on Islamic astronomy. Knowledge of mathematics in astronomy is very important, therefore it is no wonder that distribution to the Arabian astronomy placed emphasis on mathematics.

Besides similarity with the central ancient civilisations, the Arabian astronomy suggested to address to other cultural influences. It is connected with variety of problems begun for the religious practices connected in basic with хронометражом. Therefore it is not surprising that Almagest - work of Ptolemeja became, significant event in Islamic astronomy, with accent on assyrians, Greeks, the Persian and Roman chronological tables for timing referring to astronomical events. It includes knowledge of astronomy and geometry and shows art of the Arabian astronomy of those times. Evklid whom and today still name the expert on an astrology has caused a stir also. It became known as the greatest for the astronomer or "Al-megiste".

The inheritance

Islam has made the considerable contribution to area of mathematics and astronomy in the form of such opening as Ekvatorium, Planosfera, a lunno-solar calendar, a spherical astrolabe, армиллярная sphere, a compass, a dial, cartographical. Till now it is possible to meet the astronomical terms borrowed from an Islamic astrology in a modern science: an azimuth, zenith, Altair and Deneb, альмукантараты and an alidade.