воскресенье, 25 марта 2012 г.

The ecliptic. Ecliptic coordinate system

Measurements of the zenith distance or altitude of the sun at noon (ie, at the time of upper culmination) at the same latitude was found that the declination of the sun throughout the year varies between 23 e 27 'up-23e27' twice a year passing through zero. From observations of the night sky kind of change that, and right ascension of the sun throughout the year and gradually changes from 0 € to 360e, or from 0h to 24h. Indeed, at midnight, at the top are the culmination of the stars, right ascensions of which differ from the right ascension of the sun on the 180e or 12h. The observations also show that every day at midnight stars culminate with more and more direct ascent, consequently, the right ascension of the sun each day increases. Considering the continuous change of both the origin of the sun, it is easy to install, it moves among the stars from west to east along the great circle of the celestial sphere, called the ecliptic. The plane of the ecliptic E'' ^ E d (11) is inclined to the plane of the celestial equator at an angle e = 23rd 27 '. The diameter of PP ', perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, the ecliptic is called the axis and intersects with the surface of the celestial sphere in the ecliptic north pole P (which lies in the northern hemisphere) and south pole of the ecliptic P' (in the Southern Hemisphere). The ecliptic intersects the celestial equator at two points: at the vernal equinox ^ and at the autumnal equinox d. At the point of the vernal equinox ^ Sun crosses the celestial equator, moving from the southern hemisphere to the northern celestial sphere. At point d the autumnal equinox the Sun moves from the northern to the southern hemisphere. Point of the ecliptic, are separated from the equinoctial to the 90s, called the point of the summer solstice (northern hemisphere) and the point of the winter solstice (Southern Hemisphere). Large semi-circle of the celestial sphere PMP ', passing through the ecliptic poles and through the M star, is called the circle of latitude star. The ecliptic and the vernal equinox are the basis of the ecliptic celestial coordinate system. One coordinate in this system is the ecliptic latitude b luminaries M, which is called the arc of a circle of latitude mM (see 11) of the ecliptic to the celestial body, or the central angle between the plane of the ecliptic TOM and the direction of light M. Ecliptic latitude are measured in the range from 0 € to + 90 ° to the ecliptic north pole (P) and from 0 € to - 90 ° to its south pole (S '). Luminaries that are on the same small circle whose plane is parallel to the ecliptic plane, have the same ecliptic latitude. Ecliptic latitude determines the position of lights in the circle of latitude. The position of the same circle of latitude on the celestial sphere is determined by the coordinate of the other - the ecliptic longitude l. Ecliptic longitude l is the arc lights in M ​​^ m the ecliptic from the vernal equinox ^ to the circle of latitude that passes through the star, or a central angle ^ from (in the ecliptic plane) between the direction of the vernal equinox and the plane of the circle of latitude that passes through the light. Ecliptic longitude are measured in the direction of the apparent annual motion of the sun on the ecliptic, ie, from west to east in the range from 0 € to 360e. Luminaries that are on the same circle of latitude, have the same ecliptic longitude. Ecliptic coordinate system is used mainly in theoretical astronomy in determining the orbits of celestial bodies.

Changing the origin of light in the diurnal motion

When the light comes and goes, its z = 90 °, h = 0e, and the azimuths of the points of sunrise and sunset depend on the declination and the latitude of the place lights up. At the time of upper culmination zenith distance of the light of the minimum, maximum altitude and the azimuth A = 0 (if the star culminates south of the zenith), or A = 180e (unless it culminates from the zenith to the north). At the time of the lower culmination of the zenith distance of lights reaches its maximum value, the height - the minimum, and the azimuth A = 180e, or A = 0e (if the lower culmination of the nadir occurs between Z 'and the south pole of the world P'). Hence, from the lower to the upper culmination zenith distance of the light decreases, and the height increases, from the upper to the lower peak, by contrast, the zenith distance increases, the height decreases. At the same azimuth lights will also vary within certain limits. Thus, the horizontal coordinates of luminaries (z, h and A) are continually changing as a result of the rotation of the celestial sphere, and if the light has always connected with the sphere (ie, its declination d and a right ascension remain constant), then its horizontal coordinates take their previous values ​​when the sphere will make one revolution. Since the daily parallel bodies at all latitudes of the Earth (except the poles) are inclined to the horizon, the horizontal coordinates vary unevenly, even for a uniform daily rotation of the celestial sphere. Altitude h, and its zenith distance z more slowly varying near the meridian, ie, at the upper or lower culmination. Azimuth is shining A, on the contrary, in these moments varies most rapidly. Local luminaries angle t (in the first equatorial coordinate system), like the azimuth A, is constantly changing. At the time of upper culmination of his lights t = 0. At the time of the lower peak hour angle of the lights t = 180e, or 12h. But, in contrast to the azimuth, hour angle luminaries (if the declination d and a direct ascent remain constant) change uniformly because they counted on the celestial equator, and the uniform rotation of the celestial sphere angles are proportional to changes in hourly time intervals, ie increment of time equal to the angle of rotation angle of the celestial sphere. The uniformity of the angles change time is very important in the measurement of time. Altitude h, or the zenith distance z at the climax depends on the declination shone d and latitude of the observer j. Drawing directly from (7): 1) If the declination shone M1 d <j, then it culminates to the south of the zenith at the zenith distance z = j - d, (1.6) or the height h = 90 ° - j + d; (1.7 ) 2) if d = j, then the star culminates at the zenith, and then z = 0 (1.8) and h = + 90 °, (1.9) 3) if d> j, then the star of M2 in the upper peak is located to the north of the zenith to the zenith distance z = d - j, (1.10) or the height h = 90 ° + j - d. (1.11) 4) Finally, at the time of the lower culmination of the zenith distance z = M3 lights 180e - j - d, (1.12) a height h = d - (90 ° - j) = j + d - 90 °. (1.13) is known from observations (see § 8) that at a given latitude j each star always rises (or sets) at the same point of the horizon, the height it is also always the same meridian. We can therefore conclude that the declination of stars do not vary over time (at least visibly). The point of sunrise and sunset, moon and planets, as well as their height in the meridian at different days of the year - are different. Consequently, the declination of these stars are continuously changing over time.

Celestial sphere

In the study of apparent motion of celestial bodies to a varying degree of accuracy to determine their position in the points of observation. It is not necessary to know the distance to them, because all the bodies seem to us, as it were located on the inner surface of a sphere of arbitrary radius. Therefore, the visible, the provisions of stars can only be defined directions, and their relative position - angles between these directions, or the corresponding arcs of great circles on a sphere, which emanate from the center of all the directions. An imaginary sphere of arbitrary radius centered at an arbitrary point in space, which is located on the surface of the light so they are visible in the sky at some time point in space from the villa, called the celestial sphere. Thus, the imaginary observer at the center of the celestial sphere, the situation should be seen shining on its surface in exactly the same relative positions in which the observer sees a real real lights in the sky. The rotation of the celestial sphere follows the rotation of the sky. Celestial sphere is used to study the apparent positions and motions of celestial bodies. To do this, on the surface of the main line and fixed point with respect to which, and made the necessary measurements. Direct ZOZ '(4) passing through the center of the celestial sphere and coincides with the direction of a plumb-line filaments in place of observation is called a vertical or horizontal line. Plumb line intersects with the surface of the celestial sphere in two points: at the height Z, above the head of the observer, and in a diametrically opposite point - the nadir of Z '. The big circle of the celestial sphere (SWNE), whose plane is perpendicular to the plumb line, is called a mathematical or real horizon. Mathematical horizon divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two halves: the visible to the observer, with the apex at the zenith Z, and invisible, with the apex at the nadir of Z '. Mathematics should be distinguished from the horizon of the visible horizon (the line along which the "sky is convergent with the Earth"). The apparent horizon on the land - the wrong line, a point which lies above, below the true horizon. In the open sea the visible horizon is always a small circle whose plane is parallel to the plane of the mathematical horizon. Small circle of the celestial sphere (AMA), light passing through M and the plane which is parallel to the plane of the mathematical horizon is almucantars star. Large semi-circle of the celestial sphere ZMZ ', passing through the zenith and nadir M star, called a range of heights, vertical circle, or just verticals star. Diameter PP '(5) around which the rotation of the celestial sphere, called the axis of the world. The axis of the world intersects with the surface of the celestial sphere in two points: at the north pole of the world P and the south pole of the world P '. North Pole one of the rotation of the celestial sphere which is clockwise when viewed from outside the area. The big circle of the celestial sphere QWQ'E, whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of the world, called the celestial equator. The celestial equator divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two hemispheres: the north, with the north pole of the world P and south, with the south pole of the world P '. Small circle of the celestial sphere (bMb), a plane which is parallel to the plane of the celestial equator is called the celestial or heavenly body parallel diurnal M. Apparent diurnal motion of stars are made on a daily parallels. Large semi-circle of the celestial sphere PMP ', passing through the poles of the world and shone through M, is called the hour circle and the declination circle of lights. The celestial equator intersects with the mathematical horizon in two points: at the point E, and east to the west of the point W. Circles of altitude, passing through the point of east and west, called the first verticals - east and west. The big circle of the celestial sphere PZQSP'Z'Q'N, the plane which passes through the sheer line and the axis of the world, is called the celestial meridian. Celestial meridian divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two hemispheres: the eastern, east to a point E, and west, with a point west of W. The plane of the celestial meridian and the plane of the mathematical horizon intersect in a straight line of NOS, which is called the noon line. Celestial meridian intersects with the mathematical horizon in two points: at the north N and south of the point S. The point of the north is the one that is closer to the north pole of the world. The point of the south - closer to the south pole of the world. Celestial meridian intersects the celestial equator in two points: at the top of the equator Q, which is closer to the zenith, and the lowest point of the equator, Q ', which is closer to the nadir. Doug celestial meridian PZQSP 'is its upper part, and the arc PNQ'Z'P' - the lower

воскресенье, 18 марта 2012 г.

The apparent position of stars. Constellations

At what point would the Earth's surface, we are, we always think that all the heavenly bodies are to us at the same distance on the inner surface of a sphere, which is commonly called the firmament, or just air. Day of the sky, if it is not covered with clouds, a blue color, and we see it is the brightest heavenly body - the Sun. Sometimes, in conjunction with the sun, the moon is visible during the day and very rarely, some other celestial body, such as the planet Venus. In the clear night in the dark sky, we see the stars, moon, planets, nebulae, comets, and some other body. The first impression from watching the sky - a disorder of countless stars and their location in the sky. In fact, the stars visible to the naked eye, not so much as it seems, only about 6000 the whole sky, and on one side of it, which is visible at the moment from any point of the earth's surface, no more than three thousand. The relative position of stars in the sky is changing very slowly. Without accurate measurements no significant changes in the distribution of stars in the sky can not be detected in the course of many hundreds, and for the vast number of stars - and many thousands of years. The latter circumstance makes it easy to navigate among the thousands of stars, despite the apparent randomness in their arrangement. For the purpose of orientation on the sky the bright stars have long been combined into groups called constellations. Constellations designated names of animals (the Great Bear, Lion, Dragon, etc.), the names of the heroes of Greek mythology (Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Perseus, etc.) or simply the names of those objects that resembled the shape formed by the bright stars of the group (North Crown, Triangle, Boom, Libra, etc.). In the XVII century. individual stars in each constellation are denoted by Greek letters. Somewhat later introduced a numerical numbering, currently used mostly for faint stars. In addition, the brightest stars (about 130) have their own names. For example: a Canis Major is Sirius, a Aurigae - the Chapel, a Lyrae - Vega, a Orionis - Betelgeuse, b Orion - Rigel, b Persei - Algol, etc. These names and designations of stars used in the present. However, the boundaries of the constellations outlined by ancient astronomers, and representing the sinuous lines, in 1922, have changed some of the great constellations were divided into several independent constellations, and under the constellations came to be understood not of the bright stars, and parts of the sky. Now the sky is conventionally divided into 88 separate sections - the constellations. The brightest stars in the constellations are good guidelines for finding the sky more faint stars and other celestial objects. Therefore, you must learn to quickly locate a particular constellation in the sky itself. To do this, you must first learn map the sky and remember the specific contours formed in the constellations of the brightest stars.

суббота, 17 марта 2012 г.

The origin and main stages of development of astronomy

Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. The first records of astronomical observations whose authenticity is beyond doubt, refer to the VIII century. BC But we know that even in 3000 BC. Oe. Egyptian priests noticed that the flooding of the Nile, to regulate economic life of the country, attacked soon after before sunrise in the east appeared the brightest of the stars, Sirius, hiding until then about two months in the rays of the sun. From these observations, the Egyptian priests fairly accurately determine the length of tropical year. In ancient China over 2000 years BC apparent motion of the sun and moon were so well understood that the Chinese astronomers could predict the onset of solar and lunar eclipses. Astronomy, like any other science, arose out of human needs. Nomadic tribes of primitive society had to be guided in his wanderings, and they learned how to do it on the sun, moon and stars. The primitive farmer was in the field work to take into account the different seasons of the year the offensive, and he noticed that the change of seasons linked to the midday sun in height, with the advent of certain pas the night sky of stars. Further development of human society created a need for measurement of time and chronology (the preparation of calendars.) All this could give, and give observations on the movement of heavenly bodies, which were conducted at the beginning without any tools were not very accurate, but it met the practical needs of the time. From these observations, and there was a spider on the celestial bodies - Astronomy. With the development of human society to put forward all of the new astronomy and the new tasks for which needed better ways of observation and more precise methods of calculation. Gradually began to create a simple astronomical instruments, and developed mathematical methods for processing the observations. In ancient Greece, astronomy was already one of the most advanced sciences. To explain the apparent motions of planets, the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, the largest of them (II cent. BC), created a geometric theory of epicycles, which formed the basis of Ptolemy's geocentric system of the world (II cent. AD). Being a fundamentally incorrect, the system of Ptolemy nevertheless possible to predict the approximate position of the planets in the sky, and therefore satisfied to a certain extent, the practical needs for several centuries. Ptolemy's system of the world ends with stage of development of ancient Greek astronomy. The development of feudalism and the spread of Christianity led to a significant decline in the natural sciences, and the development of astronomy in Europe slowed down for many centuries. In an era of dark ages, astronomers engaged in only by observations of visible movements of the planets and the coordination of these observations with the accepted geocentric system of Ptolemy. Rational development of astronomy in this period was only from the Arabs and the peoples of Central Asia and the Caucasus, in the writings of prominent astronomers of the time - Al-Battani (850-929 gg.), Al-Biruni (973-1048 gg.), Ulugbek (1394-1449 gg .), etc. During the period of emergence and the emergence of capitalism in Europe, which replaced the feudal society, began the further development of astronomy. Especially it has developed rapidly in the era of great geographical discoveries (XV-XVI cc.). The rising new class of bourgeoisie was interested in the exploitation of new lands and fitted out many expeditions to open them. But the long journeys across the ocean called for more accurate and simpler method of calculation of orientation and time than those that could provide a system of Ptolemy. The development of trade and navigation is strongly required to improve the astronomical knowledge and, in particular, the theory of planetary motion. The development of productive forces and the demands of practice, on the one hand, and the accumulated observational data - on the other, paved the way for a revolution in astronomy, and produced by the great Polish scientist Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), who developed his heliocentric system, which was published a year his death. The doctrine of Copernicus was the beginning of a new stage in the development of astronomy. Kepler in the 1609-1618 years. were discovered laws of planetary motion, and in 1687 Newton published a law of universal gravitation. The new astronomy was able to study not only visible, but the actual movement of celestial bodies. Its numerous and brilliant achievements in this area culminated in the middle of the XIX century. the discovery of Neptune, and in our time - the calculation of the orbits of artificial celestial bodies. Next, a very important stage in the development of astronomy began relatively recently, from the middle of the XIX century., When there was a spectral analysis was applied, and photography in astronomy. These methods have enabled astronomers to begin to explore the physical nature of celestial bodies and to expand the boundaries of the investigated area. There astrophysics, in particular received a great development in the XX century. and continues to flourish today. In the 40's. XX century. began to develop radio astronomy, and in 1957 was the beginning of a qualitatively new methods of research, based on the use of artificial celestial bodies, which later led to the emergence of a new section is actually Astrophysics - X-ray astronomy (see § 160). The significance of these achievements in astronomy can not be overestimated. Launching satellites. (1957, USSR), space stations (1959, USSR), the first human flight into space (1961, USSR), the first landing of humans on the Moon (1969, USA) - a landmark event for all mankind . They were followed by delivery of the lunar soil to Earth, landing landers on the surface of Venus and Mars, sending automatic interplanetary stations to more distant planets of our solar system.

среда, 14 марта 2012 г.

The oldest astronomical monuments on the territory of Russia

The origins of the natural science world view of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples are rooted in the distant past of the Eastern Slavs. The rudiments of knowledge, embodied in the ancient times, formed the basis of ideas of our ancestors about the world. High culture of Ancient Russia would have been impossible if it was not based on that knowledge.Numerous archaeological investigations and exciting findings indicate the presence of astronomical knowledge is already among the tribes of Upper Paleolithic (35 8th millennium BC. E.), Inhabiting the territory of South-Eastern Europe.In 1871, a teacher from the town of Luben FL Kaminsky found on the right bank of the river. Uday, close to. Runners (now Lubeisky district, Poltava region). Parking nozdnepaleolitpcheskuyu 15th millennium BC. Oe. In her study in 1873, 1914-1915 and 1935. were found the remains of dwellings, as well as processed flint and bone artifacts. They include a mammoth tusk was found, covered with an amazing thread painted on a surface with exquisite accuracy. Archaeologists believe that this finding is a table of observations of the moon phases. The time axis is V-shaped line, the phases of the moon marked the strokes of different lengths. The moon, going to the damage indicated by a double prime. The first and last quarters, and Moon are marked with long lines. Attention is drawn to the location of the strokes: the first lunar month - one bar, facing outward, the second - two damaged the image of the third month, and a fourth - has a four stroke, facing outward. The observer, apparently, not only marked changes in the phases of the moon, but also kept track of time.When excavations parking Mezin on the river. Gingiva related to the late Paleolithic era, found the building in which the ritual and festivals were held. Among the items of the mammoth bones, covered with geometric patterns, naydsen inlaid bracelet, which consists of five separate plates. It is decorated with ornaments of repeating groups of parallel lines, aimed at an angle to the edge of the bracelet. Most groups consist of 14 well-inflicted cuts. Found several groups of 13 or 15 cuts. Areas of strokes in the two neighboring groups make an angle of 90 °. Each part of the bracelet, containing 27 - 29 cuts, is treated as a calendar of the lunar month. Perhaps the change in direction of strokes by 90 ° shows that in the first half of the lunar month of the disk increases, and the second - is reduced. "It is possible, as independent of each other at the same time showed the Soviet researcher Boris A. Frolov, and A. Marshak, an American scientist, which, judging by the ornamentation of the time, the Upper Paleolithic people had been the concept of a seven-day week, led by the lunar phases. In Paleolithic originated lunarnaya complicated mythology. "Another Mezin bracelet is covered with parallel bars, separated by bands of zigzags. The entire pattern consists of 564 lines - is the number of days in 19 lunar months. It should be noted that the number of lines in the central zone and the zigzags of a total of 366, which almost corresponds to one solar year. Treating Mezin bracelet as a lunar-solar calendar, the researchers believe it could be used for comparing solar and lunar time reckoning.

вторник, 13 марта 2012 г.

The cult of the sun in the mythology of the Slavs

In the burial hill tribes protoslavyan vessels are often found with the sign of the sun on the outer surface of the bottom. The largest number of finds dated to the graves, located between the rivers Vistula and the Dnieper. In the southern part of the territory of Slav settlement began to form. These tribes migrated and reached the Gulf of Finland in the north-west, the middle Volga in the east and the upper Volga River in the north-east.Designs on ceramic vessels found in graves suggest that the Proto imagine the world into the four. The three tiers, which are depicted on the ceramic vessels Tripoli culture, added the fourth - the underground, where the sun hides at night. It should ask why the ancients depicted the world in round vessels? Probably, we have a model of the universe of the ancient protoslavyan: a spherical world, consisting of the upper palate with the reserves of water, sky, through which moves the sun, the earth with plants and people, as well as the underworld, where the sun hides at night and where it goes in the morning. We can assume that it is - a prototype of the geocentric world system that emerged more than four thousand years ago and then lost for many centuries.At the turn of the Bronze and Iron Ages (XI - VII centuries. BC. E.) In the pre-Slav mythology formed the cult of the sun. All ornaments are found more often in its symbols: the cross and the wheel with four, six or eight spokes. It is interesting to note that the wheel with four spokes, or the cross was a symbol not only of the sun, and fire. Hence, identifying them, the ancient Slavs believed that the sun shines, because it burns. Wheel with six spokes was also associated with the sky, storm, thunder and lightning. The wheel with eight spokes-rays was the only sign Solptsa.In 1957, p. Lepesovka Belogorskiy district of Khmelnitsky region. archaeologist M. Tihanova during the excavation of the altar III - IV centuries. Mr. Oe. found well-preserved vessels for the New Year divination and spells. On the flat edge of a ritual bowl depicts a complex pattern consisting of 12 sections. In 1962, Rybakov decipher this pattern as a calendar. However, he argued as follows. The cross - a symbol of the sun or fire, and the ancient Slavic ritual fire lit three times a year in January (after the winter solstice), March (the vernal equinox) and June (summer solstice). Midsummer Festival (June 24) could symbolized by two elements of the pagan cult - fire and water (remember the rituals of this festival). On the ornament, the symbol of the Sun is shown three times - in the first, third and sixth sections. Consequently, the first section could be denoted in January, the third - March, and the sixth - in June. In the fourth section of the figure shows a tool for plowing the ground - plow. Time of tillage - April. In the eighth section of painted ears - cereals ripen in August and the beginning of their harvesting. Figure ninth section is similar to the network. Rybakov said its great similarity with the image of the network to old pictures of the autumn hunting of migratory birds. Consequently, we do a network, and it is marked in September.