In article the short review of astronomy of the American Indians is given. In each culture there are own representations about the night sky. Each tribe, group or the nation has own belief of that such and what value they have stars. American Indian tribes had own belief concerning value of stars, and these belief varied in each separate tribe.
Who observed of the sky?
The astronomy of the American Indians has been more often connected with elders of tribes, or with those people who have been connected with spiritual or religious to questions.
The majority of tribes, as well as in the West considered that movement of stars will be reflected in an order of things. Predictions of signs on the Earth, meant and predicted terrible droughts or success of crops. A little the American Indians of a tribe have opened and have accepted four basic directions, on the north, the south, the east and the West, as sacred. They have defined in these directions of a star, and on each direction have defined the gods.
Some astronomical events were very useful to all and everyone. Stars were used for navigation. The matter is that stars could see everyone and use for definition of a direction of movement during distant travel. For radical Americans, the astronomy is also the important factor in an everyday life.
Legends on stars
American Indian tribes thought out various that explanation why stars change position and are grouped in such order. These stories were various that testifies to a huge variety of belief which have been found out in these various tribes. For example, the tribe of western Mono in California considers that Galaxies were in group of six women which have been moved from the houses because of the unpleasant has begun to smell from a mouth from onions. To a tribe черноногих Montana and South Dakota, the Galaxy - six brothers of the orphans, which steels stars because of their neglect to a clan. Stories which are found in astronomy of radical Americans, used the best efforts to explain an origin of stars. All explanations were very various.
It is always interesting to note similarity between cultures. For example, in the West long thought of the Canis Major and the Small Dog as about stars of dogs. For Cheroki of the State of Tennessee, in the star sky there were two dogs-stars.
Importance of astronomy of the American Indians
The astronomy of the American Indians was very important for the several reasons. Stars have presented the navigation tool, for those who travels at night. For nomad tribes or tribes which often participated in long trips for which moving by the ground was very important. Besides, stars served as time quality monitoring. Unlike today when time can be defined to within a minute, the majority of tribes of the American Indians saw that time is divided only into the segments connected with their activity. For example, time was measured according to the beginning of inflow, change of colour of leaves and movement of stars in the sky. For many radical American people, year has paid off by quantity of the last full moons.