The origins of the natural science world view of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples are rooted in the distant past of the Eastern Slavs. The rudiments of knowledge, embodied in the ancient times, formed the basis of ideas of our ancestors about the world. High culture of Ancient Russia would have been impossible if it was not based on that knowledge.Numerous archaeological investigations and exciting findings indicate the presence of astronomical knowledge is already among the tribes of Upper Paleolithic (35 8th millennium BC. E.), Inhabiting the territory of South-Eastern Europe.In 1871, a teacher from the town of Luben FL Kaminsky found on the right bank of the river. Uday, close to. Runners (now Lubeisky district, Poltava region). Parking nozdnepaleolitpcheskuyu 15th millennium BC. Oe. In her study in 1873, 1914-1915 and 1935. were found the remains of dwellings, as well as processed flint and bone artifacts. They include a mammoth tusk was found, covered with an amazing thread painted on a surface with exquisite accuracy. Archaeologists believe that this finding is a table of observations of the moon phases. The time axis is V-shaped line, the phases of the moon marked the strokes of different lengths. The moon, going to the damage indicated by a double prime. The first and last quarters, and Moon are marked with long lines. Attention is drawn to the location of the strokes: the first lunar month - one bar, facing outward, the second - two damaged the image of the third month, and a fourth - has a four stroke, facing outward. The observer, apparently, not only marked changes in the phases of the moon, but also kept track of time.When excavations parking Mezin on the river. Gingiva related to the late Paleolithic era, found the building in which the ritual and festivals were held. Among the items of the mammoth bones, covered with geometric patterns, naydsen inlaid bracelet, which consists of five separate plates. It is decorated with ornaments of repeating groups of parallel lines, aimed at an angle to the edge of the bracelet. Most groups consist of 14 well-inflicted cuts. Found several groups of 13 or 15 cuts. Areas of strokes in the two neighboring groups make an angle of 90 °. Each part of the bracelet, containing 27 - 29 cuts, is treated as a calendar of the lunar month. Perhaps the change in direction of strokes by 90 ° shows that in the first half of the lunar month of the disk increases, and the second - is reduced. "It is possible, as independent of each other at the same time showed the Soviet researcher Boris A. Frolov, and A. Marshak, an American scientist, which, judging by the ornamentation of the time, the Upper Paleolithic people had been the concept of a seven-day week, led by the lunar phases. In Paleolithic originated lunarnaya complicated mythology. "Another Mezin bracelet is covered with parallel bars, separated by bands of zigzags. The entire pattern consists of 564 lines - is the number of days in 19 lunar months. It should be noted that the number of lines in the central zone and the zigzags of a total of 366, which almost corresponds to one solar year. Treating Mezin bracelet as a lunar-solar calendar, the researchers believe it could be used for comparing solar and lunar time reckoning.